Oriental Rug Glossary
Specialist Louise Broadhurst advises on everything from the identification of natural dyes to finding the right setting on your vacuum cleaner. Keen Persian rug collectors included Cornelius Vanderbilt and Sigmund Freud, who kept a rug draped over the couch on which his clients would sit. Antique Oriental rugs were woven on a traditional loom with strands of cotton, silk or wool, called warps, stretched vertically between two wooden horizontal beams. The weaver then passed rows of silk, cotton or wool, called wefts, in alternation over and under each adjacent warp. The warp and the weft constitute the basic foundation of most carpets. The higher the number of knots the finer the rug will be, and the more intricate the pattern will become. This technique proved so effective that carpets are made using these same methods today. Most carpets and rugs are classified by the surroundings in which they were woven — whether hand-woven upon the small loom of a nomadic tribe, part of a cottage industry within a local village, or produced in a professional or royal workshop within a city. While there was no limit to the length a carpet could be, the width of these rugs could never exceed eight feet around cm , the standard size of the loom. A Yomut main carpet, west Turkmenistan, second half 18th century.
How to Identify Antique Rugs
Persian rugs also are Oriental rugs but they are made only in Iran, which formerly was known as Persia. Characteristics of a Persian rug include an unusually thick pile up to knots per square inch , bold color combinations, unique designs and a very distinct knot. Persian carpets are traditionally known for their tremendous variety in design, color, size, and weave.
Persian carpets and rugs were initially woven as articles of necessity to cover the Dating back to the 5th century BC the Pazyryk carpet is a fine example of the.
Persian rugs were born from the ancient Persian empire, where handweaving was a highly respected art form. The oldest known carpet from the world is a Persian rug dating back to the 5th century BC. From the outset, Persian rugs were considered extremely luxurious owing to the craftsmanship required to make them and are referenced in Greek texts published as early as BC.
Broadly speaking, there are two types of hand-knotted Persian rugs: city rugs and tribal or nomadic rugs. City rugs are Persian rugs woven in organized workshops where weavers follow a paper blueprint of a design. In tribal or nomadic rugs, the designer and the weaver are the same person. Thus, the weaver creates a Persian rug based off of an image in his or her mind. Nomadic rugs are generally woven within a home or tent rather than a large scale organized workshop like those found in urban locations.
City Persian rugs have a cotton or silk foundation versus the wool foundation of a nomadic Persian rug. Both are equally collectible.
Dates in Oriental Rugs
Dates are sometimes woven into the end borders or fields of Oriental carpets, usually using Arabic calligraphy find out about signatures and inscriptions in Oriental rugs. Usually a date in a rug can be taken at face value, but not always. In the past, rugs were often woven by individuals who were functionally illiterate.
To date, the most expensive rug ever sold at auction was through Sotheby’s in – a 17th century Persian carpet that sold for nearly $
Antique rugs provide a unique combination of beauty and history to any room. Learning how to identify your rug can help you learn a bit about its past, understand how to care for this type of antique, and even get a sense of its value. There are several clues that can help you discover more about your rug, many of which you can interpret yourself. The first step in identifying your antique rug is to examine how it was woven.
Most antique rugs will be wool, jute, cotton, or another natural fiber, but the construction methods can vary. Artisans create rugs in a number of different ways, but there are a few primary types of antique rug construction. According to Area Rug Facts , flat weaving involves stretching fibers, called the “weft,” on a loom and then interweaving additional fibers, called the “warp. Flat weaving is a classic style that lends itself to simple designs.
In most cases, antique flat-woven rugs were made by hand. Another way antique rugs are constructed is through hand knotting, according to the Nazmiyal Collection. There are a number of different knotting styles, but all of them involve tying fiber pieces around the weft on the rug loom. These pieces can be various lengths, but they will provide pile.
How to Tell the Age of a Persian Carpet
Perfect for large homes and cozy apartments alike, rugs serve as both fundamental pieces and focal points of any space. Large area rugs create a canvas for the entire room, while smaller rugs draw the eye to specific areas. In a large room, perfectly placed area rugs can help define the space, creating smaller sitting areas within the room. Bare hardwood floors can always benefit from the addition of a warm, plush rug, but carpeted rooms can also benefit from rugs, which add contrasting textures and patterns.
Get creative by hanging elegant rugs on walls or layering rugs to mix and match different tones and textures. Ultimately, rugs offer a versatile way to enhance your home’s decor and give your room a finished look.
Many people use the terms Persian Rug and Oriental Rug interchangeably, but Techniques are carefully passed down generation to generation, some dating.
Oriental carpets can be pile woven or flat woven without pile, using various materials such as silk, wool, and cotton. Examples range in size from pillow to large, room-sized carpets, and include carrier bags, floor coverings, decorations for animals, Islamic prayer rugs ‘Jai’namaz’ , Jewish Torah ark covers parochet , and Christian altar covers. Since the High Middle Ages , oriental rugs have been an integral part of their cultures of origin, as well as of the European and, later on, the North American culture.
It includes countries such as northern China , Tibet , Turkey , Iran , the Maghreb in the west, the Caucasus in the north, and India and Pakistan in the south. Oriental rugs were also made in South Africa from the early s to mid s in the village of Ilinge close to Queenstown. People from different cultures, countries, racial groups and religious faiths are involved in the production of oriental rugs. The beginning of carpet weaving remains unknown, as carpets are subject to use, deterioration, and destruction by insects and rodents.
There is little archaeological evidence to support any theory about the origin of the pile-woven carpet. The earliest surviving carpet fragments are spread over a wide geographic area, and a long time span. The technique of weaving carpets further developed into a technique known as extra-weft wrapping weaving, a technique which produces soumak , and loop woven textiles. Loop weaving is done by pulling the weft strings over a gauge rod, creating loops of thread facing the weaver.
Dates are sometimes woven into the end borders or fields of Oriental Thus, a woven rug date of “” converts like this: Islamic lunar date of.
Many people use the terms Persian Rug and Oriental Rug interchangeably, but this is incorrect. Oriental Rug is a broader category comprised of any hand-knotted rug made in Asia. Persian Rugs fall under the umbrella of oriental rugs, but due to their popularity, the unique knot used in their production, and their specific country of origin, they are often separated into their own category.
China has a centuries long cultural history of carpet-weaving, but only recently have its rugs been discovered by the outside world. Due to this discovery, the manufacturing process changed, allowing for faster and cheaper production, spreading chinese oriental rugs to consumers around the world. All oriental rugs are woven by hand using a loom. Strings of yarn are painstakingly knotted into the weave to create the ornate designs. Oriental rugs usually use the symmetrical Turkish or Ghiordes Knot.
While modern technology has largely mechanized the process of making and dying the yarn, all true Oriental and Persian rugs are hand woven and knotted. This attention to detail is where the value and rarity of these rugs comes from, as each rug is unique and takes many hours of hard work to create. Oriental rugs are generally made from wool, but other materials including silk and bamboo are sometimes used as well. Many oriental rugs are decorated with symbols and designs whose meanings reflect the cultures in which they are made.
These tend to be geometric shapes, animals, landscapes, and floral patterns.
Up to date colours in this fine Indo-Persian rug
If you own an Oriental rug , knowing the age of your prized possession can be of special interest for several different reasons. For one thing, it helps you determine the approximate value of the rug. Although there are exceptions to the rule, in general rugs that are older have a higher value. Secondly, it makes for an interesting topic of conversation with your guests or other fellow rug owners.
The dating was made according to the Moslem calendar. You have to translate the date to your system or ask someone to help you out. When.
The age of a rug is one of the critical points in determining the value of a rug. But determining how old a specific rug might be, is also one of the most difficult skills to acquire for the rug enthusiast. Older antique rugs might show some evidence of wear. The back of the rug offers a better opportunity to determine age. Newer modern rugs will feel fuzzy on the back since their yarns still possess their fibrous surface.
As a rug ages, even if walked on carefully, the underside will become polished or abraded through pressure and friction, diminishing the fuzzy or hairy texture. Very old rugs will feel gritty, sandy, or even smooth on the back. A fine rug that looks tightly woven, but that still feels somewhat floppy or supple, is probably old, since even tightly woven rugs become supple with time.
Color or rug dye quality can also help determine how old a rug is. If a rug has pale colors, fold it to spread the pile open.
How Old Is My Rug?
The carpets coming from the Caucasus are of a simple nature, whereby the antique models have a higher quality than the modern ones. The reason for this is the material used. Whereas carpets in this region were once knotted from hand-spun wool treated with natural colours, today industrial spun wool is not uncommon. A decisive date in Caucasian rug production is the year
The first documented evidence on the existence of Persian carpets came from Chinese texts dating back to the Sassanid period ( – CE). Historical records.
This article is a reprint scanned in from a brochure published in the ‘s by the Nichols Chinese Rug Company. This little brochure has been compiled with the object of presenting Chinese Rugs in general and Nichols Super Rugs in particular before prospective purchasers in a manner we believe will stimulate your interest and appreciation. All experts agree that Chinese Super Rugs as made today represent the greatest intrinsic value in floor covering fabrics produced anywhere in the world.
Nichols Super Rugs combine that wonderful fabric with designs, colors and workmanship placing them in a class by themselves. The art of making woven rugs and tapestries goes far back into the musty realms of antiquity. The growth of rug weaving may even have been contemporaneous in the two parts of the world as a result of the intercourse maintained by early traders. The swastika which appears in so many Chinese designs is also found in Egyptian symbolism.
It means good luck, abundance, happiness and prosperity. It is from the teachings of this Llama priest that the modern Chinese rug has sprung. In W. To obtain perfect results all these things must be of the highest quality and coordinated under one management. A Nichols Super Rug is entirely a Nichols product. It is transformed from raw wool into a beautiful floor covering within the confines of our own factories and when we say our own factories we mean that we own the buildings, own the looms, own every tool and every rice bowl that is used in them.
We do not “farm” out our yarn to be made into rugs by others – we do it all from beginning to end.
FREE Estimate. Complete Satisfaction Guaranteed! The art of making rugs and carpets is widely believed to have originated in Persia, now known as Iran. Because of the long and varied history of Persian rugs, it is almost impossible to describe a common set of characteristics that all Persian rugs possess.
When reading dates on Oriental rug dated ١٣٠٣ or () onward, one ought to add years to obtain the correct but approximate.
An Oriental rug is Hand woven and varies in quality. Quality is generally determined by the wool, intricacy of design, and knot density. Wool quality is defined by the length of its fibers, springiness, and luster. Today, the wool used in Hand knotted Oriental rugs either originates exclusively from the country of origin or is a blend of indigenous and imported wool.
Intricacy of design refers to the degree of detail a design possesses as well as to the number of different colors needed to execute the pattern. The more complex the design, the more experienced the craftsman must be to weave the pattern. Finally, knot density and fineness of weave are synonymous. The more knots tied per square inch, the finer the detail in the design and the more labor-intensive the production.
The art of carpet weaving existed in Iran in ancient times, according to evidence such as the year-old Pazyryk carpet, dating back to B. This art underwent many changes in various eras of the Iranian history to an extent that it passed an upward trend before the Islamic era until the Mongol invasion of Persia.
With the passage of time, the materials used in carpets, including wool , silk and cotton , will decay. Therefore archaeologists are rarely able to make any particularly useful discoveries during archaeological excavations. What has remained from early times as evidence of carpet-weaving is nothing more than a few pieces of worn-out carpets.
HISTORY OF ORIENTAL RUGS
By definition, Oriental rugs are carpets that have been hand-knotted in Asia. Carpet weaving remains the most widespread handicraft in Iran. The origins of carpet weaving are difficult to pin-point, as carpets are prone to general deterioration over the centuries; worn out through use and destruction by rodents and insects.
WE LOVE ORIENTAL RUGS! Nothing adds exotic style and finesse to a room like an Oriental rug. It doesn’t matter how up-to-date your furniture; the power of.
Iran news, culture, analysis, local Iranian events and more. An independent media outlet for the Iranian Diaspora. Hayat Davoudi, mid 19th century. Shop persian rugs and other antique and modern rugs from the world’s best furniture dealers. Global shipping available. Each Memling gul features a stepped lozenge decorated with spiraling latch hooks set inside an octagonal medallion.
Burdock motifs, birds, angular human figures and S-hooks dot the striking blue ground. Contemporary art in the form of Afghan tribal textiles. Warrug also has the most exhaustive educational resources to identify and date conflict carpets from Afghanistan. The venue is the Motel Capri in the Marina District of San Francisco where some forty international antique rug dealers will exhibit their treasures. Opening hours Friday 18 October through Sunday 20 October will be from 10 am to 8 pm.
View this item and discover similar for sale at 1stdibs – A very unusual Turkish rug depicting 2 Lions standing side by side.